Basalt is a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow. Basalt is Earth’s most abundant bedrock, it underlies more of Earth surface than any other type of rock. It is also abundant on the Moon. Much of the Moon's surface is underlain by basaltic lava flows and flood basalts. These areas of the Moon are known as "lunar maria." Basalt is used for a wide variety of purposes. It is most commonly crushed for use as an aggregate in construction projects. Crushed basalt is used for road base, concrete aggregate, asphalt pavement aggregate, railroad ballast, filter stone in drain fields and may other purposes. Basalt is also cut into dimension stone.
Thin slabs of basalt are cut and sometimes polished for use as floor tiles, tops, building veneer, monuments and other stone objects.
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